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This study guide looks at the reasons for globalisation and its positive and negative influences. There are four main factors that form the four pillars of globalization. This view argues that globalization is a new form of activity in which a society moves from industrial capitalism to a postindustrial idea of economic relationships. The rise of globalization seeks to capture the twoway interaction of global processes and local conditions to generate new adaptations. What Are the Benefits of Globalization? Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. Therefore, the processes of globalization have been reshaping the geography of the global economy. Globalization has accelerated since the 18th century due to advances in transportation and communication technology. [3] For more on the role of Globalization in Chinese society, see:  Guthrie, Doug. Consequently, globalization can expose the internal problems and tensions among the states, societies, transnational corporations, and other global factors. [4] For more on the role of Globalization in influence social norms and practices, see:  Murray, Warwick E. 2006. How does geography matter in our explanations of globalization? Throughout the late 1980’s and 1990’s, fashion borrowed stylistic influences from Asian traditions. Latin America Transformed: Globalization and Modernity. The globalization started influencing culture in the epoch of the Great Geographical Discoveries when, for the first time in human history, cultural communications reached a planetary scale; although at first they were fragmentary and limited to contacts with sailors, traders, and conquerors. While Western ideals and concepts, including music and films, are pervasive, they are also intermixed with local elements. The national specificity of capital markets explains why there is not a truly global capital market. The Silk Road, an ancient network of trade routes across China, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean used between 50 B.C.E. Mainly globalization can be seen as a economic phenomenon which in the last decades has undergone a series of relevant changes. Third edition. Globalization has its natural barriers like the differences in languages, geographical factors, religious and ethnics. By utilizing best practices, businesses can maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing any risks associated with globalization. // This example demonstrates the RegionInfo.EnglishName, NativeName, // CurrencyEnglishName, CurrencyNativeName, and GeoId properties. Multinational corporations operate on a global scale, with satellite offices and branches in numerous locations. der Region zugeordnet ist. While high growth in the newly industrializing economies is taking millions of people out of poverty, unbridled industrialization for many years has been linked to other crises such as resource Networks of relationships and cooperation cross land borders and oceans and occur worldwide. Globalization is an effort to reduce the geographical and political barriers for the smooth functioning of any business. The expansion of the role of transnational corporations through the mechanism of foreign direct investment in the world economy is the driving force behind globalization. Therefore, there is a need to understand and propose new governance structures and mechanisms at the global and local levels, encompassing political and social needs of the government, social movements, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), grassroots movements, the media, transnationals, organized citizens, the science community, and religious movements. Globalization is one of the most widely discussed topics in geography and other social sciences. Family structures in places such as Ecuador have changed, where community members and relatives have began helping with childcare as male adults have often migrated to North America and other regions for city-based jobs. Any viable geography of finance must have something credible to say about market patterns and processes. 1. Is geography simply an outcome of globalization that poses as the cause? Globalization is a process in which geographic distances become less a factor in the sustaining of rigid land borders, long-distance economics, and political and socio-cultural relationships. China and Globalization: The Social, Economic, and Political Transformation of Chinese Society. From a cultural perspective, there are two positions taken for and against the phenomenon of globalization. "en-US" für Englisch (USA), verwenden, um auf die NativeName Eigenschaft zuzugreifen. Geographical globalization is an easing of barriers, making them less important as countries become dependent on each other to thrive. Definition and Examples of Globalization Globalization is the process of increased interconnectedness among countries most notably in the areas of economics, politics, and culture. As an example, migration to major cities and first world countries has increased during the period of Globalization. A Google search on the topic reveals around 28 million entries! London : New York: Arnold ; Distributed in the United States of America by Oxford University Press, pp. An example of the tendency for fashion to signify larger global changes is the 1990’s trend of “Orientalism” in Western fashion. To some people, globalization means the ability of transnational corporations, through the use of free trade agreements and free trade zones, to transform space. Increasingly, what were once considered Western ideals have spread to other societies and they have become increasingly seen as more universal ideals. They point to the interchanges between cultures, economies, and people. Beispiele. The geographic merger of military and economic activities was transformed into a modern global interstate system that demarcates the physical boundaries of the world today. There is a widening structural differentiation of goods and services that have spread influence across traditional political borders and economic sectors, and it has resulted in the greater influence of political and economic changes. Although globalization is not a new development, it has rapidly increased with the introduction of new technologies. S company that has outsourced its technical support to India. Non-Government Organizations (NGO) The power of national governments is reinforced, not weakened. At the opposite, many researchers consider that globalization is associated with the declining influence of space in relationships among societies. Similarly, debates on the winners and losers of economic globalization have also demonized globalization as a mythical juggernaut that is powerful enough to cause all sorts of socioeconomic miseries and political problems. Developing countries are struggling to cope with the new conditions of development and survival. As globalization grows, geographic distance is less of a factor as the Earth does not really shrink, but “relative” distances do. Globalization can also be thought of as an ideology. Some scientists have considered globalization as a first step to complex interdependence, which accepts the notion of transnational interpenetration. Globalization in History A Geographical Perspective Nicholas Crafts and Anthony J. Venables Nicholas Crafts is professor of economic history at the London School of Economics. 2004. The discipline of Geography has looked at the effects of Globalization not only on economic systems but also on societies and cultures. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, pg. Family structures in places such as Ecuador have changed, where community members and relatives have began helping with childcare as male adults have often migrated to North America and other regions for city-based jobs.[1]. As with future globalizing booms, new technologies played a key role in the Silk Road trade. London ; New York: Routledge. Unfortunately, not everyone is represented equally in the globalization process as it is affected by wealth, access to global communication media, work, financial assets, and cultural norms. Any viable geography of finance must have something credible to say about market patterns and processes. Territory, in the sense of a traditional sense of a geographically identifiable location, no longer constitutes the whole. That is, the linkages among the world's economies have tended to be stronger, within defined geographic regions or blocs, than between those regions. To define the spatiality of economic globalization, we have to look into specific geographic foundations that presuppose and legitimize economic globalization: the transcendence and switchability of geographic scales and discursive practices as socio-spatial constructions. More specifically, the intrinsic spatiality of economic globalization sets some necessary, but not sufficient, preconditions for it to effect empirical changes and outcomes. For example, Microsoft Windows which is a U. For the three regions cited above (which together account for about 80 percent of global gross domestic product), intra-regional trade in goods now accounts for 50 percent or more of exports. Im folgenden Codebeispiel wird die- GeoId Eigenschaft veranschaulicht. Globalization is simply the process through which integration and interaction of countries, companies, and people across the globe. Following the … The current agenda will be to delineate the path to achieve sustainable development and minimize the risks. social, geographic, psychological. Therefore, worldwide networks of agreements/cooperation can be established. Globalisation means that the world is becoming interconnected by trade and culture exchange. Globalisation. As an example, migration to major cities and first world countries has increased during the period of Globalization. One definition of globalization is that is a process of complex interconnections between societies, cultures, institutions, and individuals that takes place worldwide. Economic globalization refers to how exchanges of goods, information, labour, money and images have come to an international scale (Tonkiss: x). These differences between countries could undermine the cultural homogenization. Like, the Greek culture is being spread over Africa, Asia, and Europe which can be seen in the cities having the name of Alexander in Africa, Turkey, and Egypt. Globalization is everywhere—or that is how it seems. Also, globalization is accompanied by the rising of inequalities within and between countries. A prime example of Globalisation can be found by looking at the majority of MNC’s. Coffee is said to be originally from Ethiopia and consumed in the Arabid region. It is a global ideological breakthrough in which democracy is considered to be a twin of the market economy, and these together are supported to form a winning team. While this may be shown at the local level within the nationstate, it may also be argued at a more macro-level in such a regional formation as the EUROPEAN UNION (EU), seeking to define a “European identity” for its member states in a new global era. Globalization versus localization suggests that distance matters, irrespective of transportation costs, so that spatial proximity of countries influences sales patterns over and above regional trade liberalization. Furthermore, globalization increases the access to global resources for a small corporate elite. Globalization and Communicable Diseases. It also describes the increased mobility of goods, services, labor, technology, and capital. Globalization and Culture: Global Mélange. There is a marked difference between the degree of globalization as reflected in trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), and international finance. The structural adjustments of the World Bank and IMF (International Monetary Fund), bilateral conditions, rationalization of existing structures, and new regimes under the WTO are factors that aid the globalization process. The debate over globalization can be broken up into two main camps: the globalists and the skeptics. To satisfy short-term institutional investors and inflate the value of their share options, bosses gamble with their companies' future to ramp up the stock price. Cultures are also becoming heterogeneously mixed or hybridized. The power exerted by finance is represented by the growing role of capital markets in the globalization processes (the rise and spread of institutional investors). On the other hand, many of the contemporary views on trade theory and international economics predict that globalization will lead to more intra-industry specialization because of locational concentration. Globalization can bring about many benefits, as well as some challenges. Historically, economic activity has been tied to geographic location. New York: Routledge. A regional pattern is clearly evident in the data on global trade flows. Also, it is clear that formal regional trade agreements such as NAFTA and the EU potentially foster intraregional trade. Globalization, as a myth, is the belief is that we are witnessing a process of regionalization with competing trade blocs. Advances in Here are some examples: 1. Globalization means the concentration of power and wealth in the few hands of multinational corporations whose only mandate is profit (shareholder value creation). No one knows what globalization is, but everyone agrees that globalization exists (Bartelson: 180). Or perhaps more significant, what is the explanatory relationship between geography and globalization? On the other hand, anti-globalization views economic globalization as the cause of socioeconomic malaise. Die für diese Eigenschaft verwendete Zeichenfolge hängt von der Sprache ab, die dem Land bzw. This relationship emerged around 1000 C.E., as political-military organization (empires, monarchies) absorbed autonomous cities that were the centers of economic activity in their geographic territory. The Silk Road which was made to encourage trade between China and the countries around the Mediterranean Sea will not only flourish the trade between these countries but at the same time also allow the e… Other experts contend that globalization modifies deeply the structural framework of rational choice in world relations, since the role of the key factor that commonly defines both international and domestic relations (that is, the government) is subject to a critical structural transformation. and 250 C.E. The authors thank the conference participants, particularly Richard Baldwin and Jeff Williamson. However, although it is a concept whose roots go back at least to the nineteenth century, notably in the ideas of Karl Marx, it has only been in the last t… An- thony J. Venables is professor of international economics at the London School of Economics. [1] For more on Globalization’s impact on migration and family structure, see:  Gwynne, Robert N., and Cristóbal Kay, eds. McDonald's in Japan , French films being played in Minneapolis, and the United Nations are all representations of globalization. As a result, this leads to disempowerment of civil society and the homogenization of culture worldwide. It also seems clear that borders matter irrespective of distance. While in the 1990s and early 2000s, many works began to look at Globalizations’ impact on trade and policy, later works increasingly focused on major changes to education, healthcare, family structures, and other aspects of human society and culture affected by Globalization. The national specificity of capital markets explains why there is not a truly gl… It is thought that globalization will lead to a homogenization of culture as people around the world will devalue their local culture and adopt American or Westernized ways. This does not necessarily mean that sovereignty is less of a feature under conditions of globalization. For example, in sub-Saharan basin Africa communities continue to live in extreme poverty with studies indicating that almost half of children population in India is undernourished. The debate is increasingly polarized between market fundamentalists and anticapitalists. It is argued that the transnational class of elite export a set of values consistent with the American ideology of liberalism and capitalism. As an example, China joined the world trade organization in December 2001. Mark Altaweel | October 22, 2020November 9, 2016 | Economic Geography. Hardly a day goes by without it being invoked by politicians, by academics, by business or trade union leaders, by journalists, by commentators on radio and television, by consumer and environmental groups, as well as by ordinary individuals. 191. Globalization. The following code example demonstrates the GeoId property. On one hand, globalization has been accepted as the unavoidable pathway to economic prosperity and success. This in turn creates a large number of job opportunities in India for IT professionals. Globalization is the focus for popular fears about American power, the might of big business, the pace of economic change, and a sense of powerlessness in the face of intangible global forces. Societies where polygamy, purdah, and genital mutilation were once more common have increasingly seen these actions as less acceptable, particularly by the educated classes. Examples of these groups or blocs would include NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), the EU, and Asian regional organizations. Globalization, particularly the increased economic and cultural interdependence, and associated shrinking of time and space due to technological advancements, is transforming disease transmission patterns.Traditionally, immigrants have always provided a vital link in disease transmission between their home regions and their destination. New countries have opened to industrialization in Asia and America (China and Brazil are the best examples). Does one refer to geography as preexisting spatial configurations that simply do not wither away in the midst of globalization processes? 2012. When coupled with other substantive political-economic forces, these geographic preconditions—not economic globalization per se—help to explain empirical consequences and outcomes. Nevertheless, globalization is neither uniform nor homogeneous. Geographies of Globalization. The problem is that the word "Globalization" has become very popular in a short period of time. Cultures are also being spread without confining to political boundaries. These changes have transnational and multinational dynamics that are a major influence on outcomes in determining “issue-areas” (for instance, environment, trade, and world regulation) and may encourage global and local companies to be more autonomous from a traditionally exclusive government decision-making and policy. Geographical Issues on Globalization “Globalization is not the end of geography. Many researchers associate globalization with deterritorialization, where a variety of socioeconomic activities take place irrespective of the geographical location of the individuals or activities. Its boundaries are unclear and its constituent elements and multidimensional character have yet to be adequately explored. The process of globalization exacerbates the existing poverty and inequality situations within and among countries. Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. The government commonly faces crises of both organizational efficiency toward the consumer and institutional legitimacy toward the citizen. Globalization is sometimes credited with or blamed for influencing both domestic economic performance and the capacity of domestic policies to effect changes in that performance. Deepened over time (a sense of feeling “globally connected” now extends into many different areas of modern life, ranging from the imported food and TV programs we consume to our use of global social media). NGO groups and governments are increasingly seeing their role as global citizens who can bring their services and, at times, their ideals as a way to influence societies.[4]. Frequently, it is theorized that economic globalization leads to deepening income inequality and unemployment. We recommend that you use the culture name - for example, "en-US" for English (United States) - to access the NativeName property. To understand economic geography is to see the world as a mosaic of regions. In reality, the economic sphere is directed by the World Trade Organization (WTO) with its underlying goal of economic equality in political and cultural influence, through the powerful means of information technology, dominated by the West. One of the paradoxes addressed by researchers is why there has been a growth of dynamic local economies at a time when places are increasingly under the influence of, and threat of competition from, distant places—threats that are a consequence of the globalization of the markets. The topic of Globalization has been popular with human geographers in particular, as no other recent social phenomenon has arguable had such a significant impact. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. Efficiency through technology. Globalists claim that globalization is a new transformation of world order and a positive change. For example, a retiree in Spain who can instantly buy and sell stocks in an Australian company. The OECD defines globalisation as“The geographic dispersion of industrial and service activities, for example research and development, sourcing of factor inputs, production and distribution, and the cross-border networking of companies, for example through joint ventures and the sharing of assets.” To what extent it also represents a possible transformation in the structures of politicoeconomic power is a difficult question. The weak cultures may not be able to resist forces of globalization, but third world countries should not be unaware of the “hidden agenda” of globalization. A greater number of goods can be exchanged and production methods can be improved. This means multinational companies can stay open virtually 24 hours a day a… Examples of movies from India, such as Mississippi Masala or the Reluctant Fundamentalist, reflect Indian-Pakistani migrants’ experiences in the United States, where the titles and tongue-in-cheek portrayal are American in style, but the presentation and themes discussed are more understood and relevant for Indian-Pakistani communities. The skeptics also point to the growing size of state budgets, nationalism, and agreements between countries in regions, all processes that are regional, not global. 3rd ed. Es wird empfohlen, dass Sie den Kultur Namen, z. b. Similarly, economic globalization does not eliminate the government's exclusive control over its territory, but alters the particular type of institutional encasing of territory that has developed since World War II. Globalization is understood as a social process in which geographic obstacles to social and cultural arrangements lose importance and where people are becoming increasingly aware that they lose importance (Waters 1995, p. 3). Routledge Contemporary Human Geography Series. Good examples of cultural globalization are, for instance, the trading of commodities such as coffee or avocados. However, the goal of globalization is not that the entire world would become Westernized and capitalist, but that the Western culture becomes the standard by which other cultures measure themselves. Additionally, economic globalization represents a major transformation in the territory of key economic sectors. The Silk Road, an ancient network of trade routes used between Europe, North Africa, East Africa, Central Asia, South Asia, and the Far East, is an example of early globalization. These activities represent more than just the simple globalization of economic activity; they refer to the increasing integration of economies and societies across the world. One of the possible answers to this question is that local technological dynamism depends on local non-tradable assets such as trust or social capital. The transformative ability of the globalization process has commonly been associated with both material outcomes in such specific spatial units as localities, regions, and nation-states and peculiar discursive practices by societal partners. Science International programs of science such as joint space programs. The slogan of globalization is “Either globalize or perish.” As an ideology, globalization implies both the inevitability and the desirability of the tendency toward integration, and not the adverse. This change is driven by a revolution among the techno-industrial elite that will eventually consolidate into a single global market. Rather, it may signal the relocation of some components of state sovereignty onto supranational authorities. 2nd ed. Awareness of opportunity & transportation. It enhances the importance of supra-national and subnational scale processes. These processes are closing the policy choices for developing countries, which are losing their options. If a national country's economy is not performing well, it must be because the economy does not have “enough” economic globalization. Finance and transnational corporations are the core subjects of economic geography. More of the pros and cons will be reviewed later on in this section. The major dynamics at work in the global economy contain the capacity to undo the interaction of sovereignty and territory embedded in the modern state system. Globalization helps businesses tap into new markets and expand their business across their geographic borders. 2) Economic globalization; which denotes the increasing trade of goods, services, intellectual property, and corporate interactions and transactions transcending geographical lines. [2], In China, Globalization has benefited its industry, but it has also resulted in China’s citizens having more Western style expectations, such as in relation to consumption, status, and expectation for social reforms.[3]. Nonetheless, due to commercial trades after the 11th century, it is nowadays known … Recently, the information technology revolution has opened up new possibilities of communications and monitoring abilities across long distances, and has made it easier for transnational corporations to outsource some parts of their business. International economic integration has tended to be a regional rather than a global phenomenon.

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